I recently came across Mohammed Ali’s Betting system, How to ‘Place Bets’ on Favorites for a Living.
He then put these horses through a set of betting system simple rules to eliminate any risks they may be carrying. He lays the complete betting system out before you, why bet on favorites and why for a place? The answer… I’ve been ripped off before with horse racing betting systems so I understand exactly where you’re coming from. Occasionally they will get lucky and succeed. For a betting system, believe me, that’s pretty revolutionary!
There are lots of so called Horse Racing betting systems out there. Most never even try a betting system, something which is essential to actually make a consistent profit on horse betting.
Ali’ betting system can be applied to any gallop horse race in the world. The twist is, you don’t even bet for a win! By betting for a place only you dramatically increase the odds in your favor. Does anyone really have the spare time to do this consistently? Call me lazy but why make things hard for yourself betting on hard to pick non favorites when you can very, very easily profit from the favorites!
So the Horse racing betting system in a nutshell goes something like this:-
First off all let me clarify something, when he talks about making money from horse racing betting, he’s not talking about a few freak or lucky wins in a month. What you end up with is a set of very secure favorites that have an extremely high chance of winning. Its safe, quick and easy… Its already been extensively used in America, Hong Kong, Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, UK and most of Europe for over 13 years by thousands of people. The word here is lucky, in the long run they will certainly lose money. With How to ‘Place Bets’ on Favorites for a Living , you don’t need any prior horse betting or statistics knowledge. Its simply a matter of consistently following the betting system.
Horse Racing Betting Systems – Do they Work?. What he’s referring to is consistently profiting week after week and year after year from punting. The majority of punters that lose money on horse racing try to make big sums of money from just a few dollars. Plus it takes only 10-20 minutes to use on any race day. it’s so easy that at times it feels almost unfair. Also why place betting on favorites is the safest and easiest way to profit from horse racing betting. Doing it this way is going to take you 18 hours a day of research just to figure out which horses may produce the goods. This is a betting system that really delivers.
He answers the questions of why place betting on favorites is simply the quickest way to profit from horse racing betting. In the limited space I have available in this article there’s no way I can fully convince you about how much you can learn from this guys betting system. The guy shows you how he maintained a win strike rate of 89.52% and a place strike rate of 96.35% using his own betting system.
Everyone knows that the favorites have a high chance of winning a race right? What Ali’s system does is to select only certain types of favorites that have even a much higher chances of winning.
If you want to be shown a step-by-step outline of exactly how you can use Ali’s betting system, How to ‘Place Bets’ on Favorites for a Living, to consistently earn an income from horse racing betting, then head on over to the website at http://www.horsebetpro.com
Don’t get me wrong. I can say in all honesty that as a former frustrated punter it is well worth the time checking out this information. It is theoretically possible to make a consistent profit on investing in high priced non favorites at the track. When you bet on well priced non-favorites, you are effectively betting against the odds. However investing on certain favorites that have passed a set of Ali’s betting system rules will definitely set the odds in your favor in a very big way!
Let me assure you that the betting system is written in plain English and it’s easy enough for a 11 year old to use. You’ve sent away for stuff that never quite reached you, or you bought something and it didn’t live up to its expectations. Ok now don’t go all skeptical on me at this point. Few betting systems deliver on what they promise
Some of us are addicted to the habit, without even knowing that. With so many…
Negative Effects of Gambling
Gambling is the act of betting money with the expectation of profits. How does gambling affect an individual? What are its effects on society? Read this Buzzle article to know about the negative impact of gambling.
Internet Gambling Facts and Problems
What do you know about Internet gambling? Are you aware of the problems associated with it? Read on to know them and find some alarming facts about online gambling, in this article.. Reasons Why Gambling Should Be Illegal
What are the adverse effects of gambling? How does it affect society? Should gambling be legal? We don’t think so and here we bring you an article that discusses the reasons why gambling should be illegal.
Impact of Internet Gambling
So many of us are attracted to gambling online. The thrill in betting money and that excitement in the uncertainty of winning or losing it is addictive
The winners are that group of individuals who don’t place bets merely on guess operate or try their luck. They’ll see past outcomes, statistics, the kind book and a lot of other issues prior to drawing a conclusion. Persons looking to make use of sports betting tipster service should really do a thorough check up on the website’s service. A very good service is 1 that offers you a free of charge trail offer, that way you can test their services and when you are sure their solutions are what you’re seeking for then you definitely can go ahead and spend for it.
In recent times it is not so tough getting reputable betting strategies. Your selection must not be based on your liking for a particular sport or sportsperson. Thus it will not matter which soccer team wins or which player scores the purpose or which horse crosses the post 1st the bookmaker will in turn a superb profit from all those that placed incorrect bets and pay only individuals who got it ideal.
A very good qualified tipsters web site having a established track record of accomplishment and verified tipster profiles would go a long way in helping you develop extended lasting success. You might need to incur losses at instances but having a experienced service you will be in a position to maximize income and lessen the risk of creating a loss.
In the real globe scenario there are actually a huge selection of losers as against a handful of winners. In the event you can obtain on the web testimonials for that website then that must inform you how well other users have located the services to become. In the same time if the bookmarker is offering a cost then that bookmarker already inside a excellent position to create a healthier profit on the supply price tag. Naturally you may need to become completely sure with the service; a very good service or on line service with credible on the internet evaluations will serve as an excellent thrust to your plans. Based on your analysis you could decide to join or appear for other sites, this could in the end be the distinction involving accomplishment and failure.
Are you currently are budding punter trying to earn money from on the net sports betting? On the internet sport betting is really serious business and there runs a higher risk of generating a loss so a better and informed position will improve your possibilities of producing a profit. Get additional details about canli bahis oranlari http://canlibahis.info
You would never ever have heard a bookie losing cash, it can be normally the punter that wins or loses as well as the bookie stands to earn in each situations. That is certainly since the bookmarker doesn’t leave the door open from exactly where he will be within a loss making scenario. Sports betting and betting tipster sites are there in abundance so you genuinely must careful about applying them. Losing a handful of dollars in registration or sign up charge will be as huge a letdown as losing a huge selection of dollars parked inside your account would when a service cheats you.
It truly is also not probable that employing the most beneficial bet tipsters service you can win every single time. The authorities will usually possess the finest chance at winning.
. Winners are a group of men and women who do their homework the challenging way
In this country, gaming companies bet people on whether the central bank’s interest will increase or not. H2 Gambling Capital has released the list of biggest gambling countries due to average gaming losses.
The potash-rich province of Saskatchewan is home to the biggest gamblers in Canada. Otherwise, Australia is the only country that allows online bets on sports but prevents gamblers from using the Internet to place bets during live games.
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553
. According to business advisory firm MAG Consulenti Associati, the electronic gaming makes up half of Italy’s total gaming revenues in first half of 2011.
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517
Era of Online Gambling
Singapore offered the very first casino some years ago which then became the world’s third largest-gaming center after Macau and Las Vegas. Reportedly, over 75 percent of adult Canadians took part in the games last year in which the most popular games are lotteries and Scratch and Win cards.
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288
Gambling’s Famous Icons
The most favorite gambling activity in Italy is electronic gaming machine. Furthermore, the slot machines named pokies are the most favorite game in Australia with an estimated number of 75-80 percent of problem gamblers.
Las Vegas is well-known as the gambling industry of the world; however, American people are not the biggest gamblers on Earth. Although the government has imposed an entry fee of S$100 ($80.50) for citizens entering the casino, the country’s gaming revenue is expected to hit $6.4 billion in 2011 and outpace Las Vegas.
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174
Top Online Gambling Mistakes
Australia: Biggest Gambling Country in the World
Interestingly enough, the country’s national lottery company, Veikkaus, belongs to the government and is operated by the ministry of education. Most profits go to education, arts and culture.
Australia is the craziest country when it comes to gaming and gambling
Good luck to all the NASCAR drivers and especially the bettors this week at the 2016 GEICO 500 at Talladega!
T-5. McMurray has seven career wins in 483 starts and he started in 27th last week and finished in 16th place.
Both drivers looking for first wins in 2016. The NASCAR Sprint Cup career racing stats are also listed for each driver along with comments.
Field of all other drivers – 25 to 1
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Last week Denny Hamlin started in 5th place and finished in 6th. Neither driver has ever won this race but Clint Bowyer does have two wins at Talladega (2010, 2011). Carl Edwards – 12 to 1
After starting in 9th place last week Kyle Busch got passed on the last lap by teammate Edwards and he finished in 2nd place. Junior is likely favored here because he’s won this race three times including last year and he has six career wins at Talladega. Tony Stewart, Kyle Larson – 30 to 1 odds each
Matt Kenseth started in 13th place and finished in 7th last week at Richmond. Brad Keselowski – 12 to 1
T-5. Austin Dillon – 20 to 1
T-3. Kevin Harvick – 12 to 1
Both these drivers at 15 to 1 odds each are looking for their first wins in 2016. Harvick has a win this season at Phoenix. For his career, Taony Stewart has 48 wins in 591 starts but has not won a race since 2013. For his career, Kyle Busch has 36 wins in 399 starts.
The 2016 GEICO 500 NASCAR Sprint Cup race is taking place this Sunday, May 1, 2016, at the Talladega Speedway in Lincoln, Alabama with a 1:19 pm EDT start time and the race is on TV on FOX. He has one win in this race (2010) for one win over the track. For his Sprint Cup career, Joey Logano has 14 wins in 264 starts.
Kevin Harvick had the pole last week but ended the race in 5th place. Logano is looking for his first win in 2016 but he did win the fall race at Talladega last year for his lone win over the track. Here is a list of the betting odds for the NASCAR drivers to win the 2016 GEICO 500.
Jimmie Johnson started started and finished in 3rd place last week in Richmond. Martin ran well at Richmond starting in 22nd and finishing in 9th place. Neither driver has any Sprint Cup wins at Talladega. – 8 to 1 odds
T-3. Chase Elliott is a rookie making his 15th start this week looking for his first career win and he ran OK last week starting in 23rd and finishing in 12th. Ryan Newman, Clint Bowyer – 40 to 1 odds each. For his career, Jimmie Johnson has 77 wins in 516 races.
Of these three drivers at 25 to 1 odds each, Jamie McMurray has two wins at Talladega (2009, 2013) and the other two have none. While one might think a driver going for his 3rd straight win would be lower odds, Carl Edwards has yet to win this race or win at Talladega. For his NASCAR Sprint Cup career, Kevin Harvick has 32 wins in 547 starts.
Brad Keselowski started in 6th last week and finished the race in 11th place. Kurt Busch started in 7th last week and finished in 10th. All three are looking for their first wins in 2016. He won the Daytona 500 to start the season for his only win in 2016 so far. – 15 to 1 odds each
T-18. Junior’s career earnings will go over $100 million in 2016 from NASCAR Sprint Cup prize money.
Joey Logano started in 2nd last week and finished the race in 8th. Kurt Busch has 27 wins in 549 starts while Martin has just three wins in 378 starts.
Austin Dillon is making his 95th career NASCAR Sprint Cup race start in the GEICO 500 and he’s still looking for his first win. Bowyer started in 39th and finished in 33rd place. He has a win at Las Vegas in 2016. is the betting favorite this week to win the 2016 GEICO 500. He has two wins in this race (2006, 2011) for two wins over the track. For his career, Carl Edwards now has 27 wins in 418 starts.
T-5. Kyle Busch – 12 to 1
In addition to listing the betting odds for each driver also listed are how many wins each drivers has in 2016, how many wins each driver has in this race and at Talladega. He’s looking for his first win 2016 and first win in this race but he does have one win (2012) at Talladega. Kyle Busch has wins this season at Martinsville and Texas. For his career, Denny Hamlin has 27 wins in 371 starts.
T-16. For his career, Junior has 26 wins in 586 starts. Joey Logano – 11 to 1
T-5. Junior has come close this year but he’s still looking for his first win in 2016. Kasey Kahne, Chase Elliott, Jamie McMurray – 25 to 1 odds each
After winning the last two NASCAR Sprint Cup races at Bristol and Richmond, Carl Edwards is 12 to 1 to win again this week for his 3rd straight win. He has never won this race and has just one win (2008) at Talladega. Kyle Larson is making his 85th career start this week looking for his first career win.
T-5. He started in 11th place last week and finished the race in 20th.
T-13. Jimmie Johnson – 11 to 1
2. Last week at Richmond, Junior started in 16th place and finished in 13th. He has wins this season at Atlanta and California. He has one win in this race (2008) for his lone win over the track. For their careers, Ryan Newman has 17 wins in 521 starts and has not won since 2013 and Clint Bowyer has eight wins in 370 starts and he has not won a race since 2012.
T-10. For his career, Brad Keselowski has 18 wins in 242 starts.
Tony Stewart started in 18th place last week in his NASCAR return and finished in 19th. Kurt Busch, Martin Truex, Jr. Keselowski has two wins in this race (2009, 2012) and three wins (2014) over the track. Kasey Kahne has 17 career wins in 441 starts and ran good last week too starting in 8th and finishing in 4th. Dale Earnhardt, Jr. Hamlin won this race in 2014 for his lone win over the track. For his career, Matt Kenseth has 36 wins in 587 starts.
12. Denny Hamlin – 9 to 1
1. Last week, Ryan Newman started in 14th and finished in 18th place. Matt Kenseth – 12 to 1
At relatively high odds of 8 to 1, Dale Earnhardt, Jr
Finally, if you were born in the range of April 14th thru April 19th, you will be luckier during the Moon’s fourth quarter.
Saturday: You are luckier during the 3rd, 10th, 17th, and 24th hour after sunrise.
Wednesday: You are luckier during the 5th, 12th, and 19th hour after sunrise.
Tuesday: You are luckier during the 1st, 8th, 15th, and 22nd hour after sunrise.
Monday: You are luckier during the 4th, 11, and 18th hours after sunrise.
The celestial number of Aries is (7), and Mars, the ruling planet of Aries has a numerical value of (6). The teacher teaches us how to survive on this earth by fighting with all the barriers of life. Deutsch – It’s a universal law that says, what you sow, so shall you reap. Deutsch – Thinking outside the box actually requires you to suspend the thought process long enough for the answers to come into your mind. For people born under Aries, the following calculations hold.
If you are born under Aries, and are playing a game of chance with a partner, you will be luckiest when that partner is born under one of the following signs: Aquarius, Gemini, Leo, Sagittarius, or Libra.
Lessons In Surrender – Becoming More Spiritual By: Heidi Alexandra Pollard – It began with a feeling, then a sign, a nudge and then a book. You can determine this hour by starting at sunrise, and then counting forward to your lucky hours. Don’t play the victim when you are subjected to the same type of treatment you have meted out to others.Tags: universal law, victims, sow, reap, abusive behaviorA Teacher Helps Us To Nourish Our Career And Future By: savemypc – A teacher has a lot of importance in our life from the time we are born. A signal to change, to slow down, to breathe more deeply and to go within.Tags: spirituality, happiness, happy, success, personal developmentWhy Is It Important For A Doctor To Opt For Spiritual Retreat In Bali? By: Ashis Kumar – Here in this article you will find some points that describe why doctors opt for spiritual retreat in Bali.Tags: retreat bali, bali retreat, retreat, meditation, yogaGet Over Yourself, Connecting Is Key To Communicate Your Dream, So Get Over Yourself! By: Sandy Z – Everyone communicates but few connect. If you are going to gamble on the lottery during the month; you should buy your ticket on one of the following days: the 4th, 13th, 22nd, or 31st. If your birthday falls in the range of April 6th thru April 13th, you will be luckier during the days of the Full moon. Uma regio muito privilegiada quanto paisagem e a pureza do ar.Tags: espiritualidade, sucesso e prosperidadeKaal Sarp Dosh Yog And Its Effects By: Vijay Bharti – Kaal Sarp Dosh is one of terrific condition in ones kundli so it require proper remedy and astrological consultation by Vedic Astrologers
Tags: kaal sarp yog puja, kaal sarp dosh puja, kaal sarp doshWhat Goes Around, Comes Around By: Connie H. Most people are so busy thinking that they don’t allow their minds to be quiet enough to receive the answers.Tags: outside the box, meditation, thinking, consciousness, astralWe’re On The Way To Becoming By: Connie H. Tags: experienced teacher in BrisbaneThe Most Unexpected Website I Came Across Was That Of The Grace Church! By: onlinejazz – Internet always throws up some surprise or the other for us anyways! The more we explore, the more we come across things! And most interestingly, we end up finding out websites that we never thought that existed.Tags: Christ Church videos, video sermons online, video sermonThinking Outside The Box By: Connie H. Therefore, any day of the month who’s digits reduce to (4) is a lucky day for people born under Aries. Do you have a dream or vision that you want to communicate to the world. This number varies by the day of the week.
Many sources hold that you are luckier during the day when your ruling planet is governing. As an Aries, you probably know your basic Horoscope, but did you know that there are particular days and hours of the Month which are especially lucky for you? Here are some times when you will be especially lucky.
===> Lucky Moon Days
Friday: You are luckier during the 6th, 13th, and 20th hours after sunrise.
Sunday: You are luckier during the 7th, 14th, and 21st hours after sunrise.
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Thursday: You are luckier during the 2nd, 9th, 16th, and 23rd hours after sunrise.
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If you were birthday falls in the range of March 21st thru March 28th, you will be luckier during the days of the New Moon. Connecting with people is an art. In other words, what goes around, comes around. It is difficult to survive without a teacher. If it falls in the range of March 29th thru April 5th, you will be luckier during the days of the second quarter of the Moon. Visit him on the web today at http://www.numerology4you.com
People born in the date range of March 21st through April 19th have the Astrology sun sign of Ares the Ram. Learn to connect and the world is yours.Tags: Get over yourself, getting over yourself, get over myselfLuz Da Serra – Encontre O Seu Caminho De Luz By: Jill Cohen – O nome Luz da Serra nasceu de uma imensa admirao que os seus fundadores, Bruno J.Gimenes e Patrcia Cndido, sempre tiverem ao ver o pr do sol na serr gacha.
For Everyone:. Using fadic addition from Numerology gives us the sum of (13) which reduces to (4). When we look back, we can measure our progress by the way our thoughts and actions have defined our life.Tags: becoming, spiritual, near-death, God, mortality
About the Author:
Keith Abbott is the developer and owner of ‘Numerology 4 You’ where you can order your own Numerology reading, including your complete Lucky Days calendar. Deutsch – From the time we are born, we are always on our way to becoming something. Connection comes from the heart. A teacher educates a student and makes him or her socially capabl … You must first connect. In addition, you should look for the number (4) to appear in your winning numbers
Then a number of notable golfers are also listed with comments who have much higher odds this week to win the 2016 RBC Heritage.
Bill Haas tied for 24th last week at the Masters. Davis Love III (1987, 1991, 1992, 1998, 2003) holds the record for most wins in the tournament with five followed by Hale Irwin (1971, 1973, 1994) with three wins. Zach Johnson has not won since capturing his second major at the 2015 British Open last July. He’s a tough bet here at only 25 to 1 odds.
Good luck to all the PGA golfers and especially the bettors this week at the 2016 RBC Heritage!
Kevin Na has now played in 312 PGA events and he only has one win. He’s 32 years old and his only PGA Tour win came last November in the RSM Classic. Haas has six PGA Tour wins with his last win coming in January of 2015. Thomas is 22 years old and he won for the first time on tour last November in the 2015 CIMB Classic.
T-10. He does have 13 European Tour wins but his last win was in 2014.
Young 21 year old Matthew Fitzpatrick from England tied for 7th at the Masters earning himself a return trip next year. That was the last of his five PGA Tour wins. Baddeley missed the cut at Houston two weeks ago in his last start. Weekley also won at Colonial in 2013 for three career PGA Tour wins. Charles Howell has two wins on tour in 463 starts.
T-8. Prior to The Masters, Jason Day won the Arnold Palmer and the WGC Match play in back-to-back weeks but he took a week off before the Masters. Branden Grace missed the cut at the Masters last week but the 27 year old has seven European Tour wins including the 2016 Qatar Masters in January. He’s got three PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2011.
Graeme McDowell won the RBC Heritage in 2013. Jason Dufner, Charles Howell, Charley Hoffman, Tony Finau, Luke Donald, Graeme McDowell – 50 to 1 odds each
Carl Pettersson – 225 to 1 odds
Davis Love III holds the record for most wins in this tournament with five but his last win here was in 2005. He has 12 PGA Tour wins. He’ll win this week if he’s back to his previous form but is 5.5 to 1 odds worth the risk?
Paul Casey tied for 4th at Augusta last week and now he’s the second choice in the betting odds to win this week at 16 to 1. He has 21 PGA Tour wins including a shocker last year at the 2015 Wyndham Championship at age 51.
7. In his last start, Brian missed the cut at the Valspar Championship over a month ago.
Davis Love III – 250 to 1 odds
Brandt Snedeker tied with Jason Day last week in 10th place at the Masters. Davis tied for 42nd last week at the Masters. Paul Casey has only won once on the PGA Tour back in 2009. Snedeker has eight PGA Tour wins including his latest win which was at the 2016 Farmers Insurance Open in early February. Charley Hoffman tied for 29th at the Masters last week. Justin Leonard is 43 years old and he has 12 PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2008.
After a 10th place tie in the Masters last week, Jason Day is still ranked as the #1 golfer in the world and he’s the fairly heavy favorite to win the 2016 RBC Heritage at betting odds of 5.5 to 1. Brandt Snedeker – 20 to 1
After being the low amateur at the Masters and tying for 21st place overall, Bryson DeChambeau is turning pro for the 2016 RBC Heritage.Not many golfers win their pro debuts and this guy should be higher than 66 to 1 odds this week.
6. Fitzpatrick has a lot of talent and he won his first pro tournament last October at the 2015 British Masters on the European Tour. Billy Horschel tied for 17th at the Masters last week which is not bad but Horschel only has three tour wins and his last win was at the Tour Championship in 2014.
2. The rest of these golfers at 50 to 1 odds each did not play last week in the major.
Matt Kuchar tied for 24th at the Masters. Matthew Fitzpatrick – 30 to 1
Brian Gay won this tournament in 2009. Tony Finau won for the first time on tour on March 27, 2016 at the Puerto Rico Open, an alternate PGA Tour event. If Jason Day falters this week this kid could win.
Aaron Baddeley won the RBC Heritage in 2006. Billy Horschel, Branden Grace, Kevin Na – 40 to 1 odds each
Bryson DeChambeau – 66 to 1 odds
Boo Weekley – 140 to 1 odds
1. Matt Kuchar, Zach Johnson – 22 to 1 odds each
Kevin Kisner tied for 37th place at the Masters last week. The big news for the 2016 RBC Heritage is that Jason Day is in the field and he is easily the highest ranked golfer here this week.
Listed below are all the PGA golfers with odds of 50 to 1 or less with comments. He’s 44 years old and he has six wins on the PGA Tour with his last win coming in 2009 at The British Open for his only career major.
The RBC Heritage golf tournament dates back to 1969 when Arnold Palmer won the inaugural event. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 RBC Heritage golf tournament.
T-13. Paul Casey – 16 to 1
Stewart Cink has wins in this tournament in both 2000 and 2004. Jason Day – 5.5 to 1 odds
Stewart Cink – 150 to 1 odds
Justin Leonard – 175 to 1 odds
Carl Pettersson from Sweden won the RBC Heritage in 2012. Kuchar has seven PGA Tour wins but his last win was in the RBC Heritage in 2014.
Boo Weekley won the RBC Heritage in back-to-back years in 2007 and 2008. Snedeker also won this tournament in 2011.
3. He missed the cut last week as did Jason Dufner. Boo made the cut in his last two tournaments but he was no threat to win either time.
Justin Leonard won this tournament in 2002. He missed the cut last week but improvement is expected this week.
4. He has four career PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2013. Justin Thomas tied for 39th at the Masters. Kevin Kisner – 25 to 1
Luke Donald is a fomer #1 ranked golfer but he’s not won a tournament since 2012. Pettersson has missed the cut in his last two PGA tournaments.. He’s a talented golfer but he never wins. Bill Haas, Justin Thomas – 33 to 1 odds each
Aaron Baddeley – 140 to 1 odds
The 2016 RBC Heritage golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from April 14-17, 2016, at the Harbor Town Golf Links at the Sea Pines Resort on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina
This means if you hit a blackjack and your bet is $10 you’ll be paid $15 at a table with a 3:2 payout, but you’d win just $12 at a 6:5 paying table.
If you’ve heard of Las Vegas, then I’d bet you’ve heard of the strip. It has one of the highest concentrations of quality casinos and entertainment in the city. What is the strip? It’s about a 4 mile stretch of a street on Las Vegas Boulevard South. Other Las Vegas casinos play with just one deck with small bets to attract players. Many tourists never leave it during their stay.. Some casinos use 8 decks and a shuffling machine to increase the house odds (or casino’s odds) and to make card counting almost impossible.
Player’s cards are cards offered at many casinos to gamblers who want to earn perks when they play. With small decks, you’ll probably be seeing the better odds of 3:2, more and more, you’ll start to see rates of 6:5. Depending on how much money you play with, you can earn quite a bit of complimentary gifts and discounts at restaurants, stores and theatres.
The odds in blackjack vary as much by casino as they do by table
Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.
This makes little sense.
Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well. Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.
Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples. In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive
Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary. What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously. It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966.
Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.
Mr. Memory Elvin Lewis
Dr. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”
By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor. A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay).
AIDS now had a face.
The Road to Zero
Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses. He was blond, voluble, and open. Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls. He took on whatever he felt like. As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts. [The quintessential version of “The Clone Look” would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen’s lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.]
The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene. The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.
He started out as a hairdresser. Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual. He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job. He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada. This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters. In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.
Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.
The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”. Certainly, they were paid less. There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.
Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.
Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim. As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.
Gay men realized the danger. Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent. Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others. They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men. Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).
As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active. Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic. His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body.
For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust.
AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership. I truly appreciate it.
Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.
As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida. It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history.
His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling. Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs. Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate.
In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died. In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive.
The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version. One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871. HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922. Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.
In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.
Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966. Other strains have been isolated as well. As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much).
A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances. He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect. In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim. Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa). Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.
Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953. His life was on a collision course with history. In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active. [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown. He may have been bisexual.]
In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease. In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa. He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea. He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa. In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections. By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver.
Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS). In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died.
There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?). Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ [“zero”] instead.
Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities. His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.
Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation. In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues. Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected. Further confirmation testing in 1989 proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. .
He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). Louis, Missouri. His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George. Rayford was described as slender. His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness.
Gateway to the West
The End of Days was seemingly at hand.
Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.
But, it doesn’t end there.
Less Than Zero
The airline industry developed glamour. The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless. These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime. Therefore, they must be promiscuous. The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring. Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses. The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day). Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.
He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time). [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]
Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54. This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world. Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there. Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity. No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54. Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies.
Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there. She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill. Her symptoms confounded her colleagues. She died in December 1977. Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive. During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.
Dugas remained unrepentant. He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually. His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex. Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.” His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves. They know what’s going on out there. They’ve heard about this disease.” The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer. I’m going to die and so are you.”
Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind. As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID). This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system. It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims. It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.
Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick. He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”. But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious. He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him. His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice. His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.
In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.
This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.
Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards. Stewardesses, however, were very desirable. They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man. In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.
Good investigative work requires dogged determination. Running an enigma to ground can take years.
The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants. This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service. Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press. It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen. He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”. He also had shortness of breath. His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems). This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.
First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners. After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed. This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest. When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer. Maybe you’ll get it.”
Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment. [Rubell later died of AIDS.]
He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well. In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen. It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame). The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort. It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).
Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem. And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.
The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture. Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island. Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”.
Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.
Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research. It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted. Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS.
There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry. At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.
In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants. They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality. “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.
The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. . Louis.
The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in. Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.
The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning. Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”) for “the beginning”. It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).
By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.
The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS. That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.
Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did. This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed.
On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.
Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31. His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.
This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV.
The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old). He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened. His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically. The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised. He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ). His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”
He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active. His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr. Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.
In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived. Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities. Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men. They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco. [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).
Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America.
Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams. It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse). One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background). He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him. To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.
This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject. One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case. Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America.
Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”. Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors. An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh). [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.]
Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people.
Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless. At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner)..
Dr. . It was so unusual at the time . It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away. In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved. Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected. This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not). Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.
The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within. Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54’s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself.
AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans. IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive.
“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”
A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though. Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests. This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”. It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly. Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.
And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history.
The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men. These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials. As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male. World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too.
Update note:Dr. . 1952-1953).
One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America. As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate. As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount. Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men.
From a front-line perspective
Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture. He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough.
Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep).
Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”.
The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”. They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American. They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”. More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.
Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio. He came to the US in 1927. He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan. He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue. Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case. Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS? “You bet